How to cite :

Provost, F., Malet, J.-P., Michéa, D., Déprez, A., Pointal, E., Pacini, F., ForM@Ter - EOST (2024): Terrain displacement from the Turkiye-Syria earthquakes of February 6, 2023 obtained with the GDM-OPT-ETQ service applied on Sentinel-2 optical imagery

doi:10.25577/EWT8-KY06
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Description

The region along the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) has a well-known history of seismic activity. On February 6, 2023, two earthquakes of Mw 7.8 and 7.5 had devastating effects on the ground by opening large ruptures and by displacing the earth crust of 5 to 10 m locally. The longer of the two ruptures stretches nearly 300 km in the northeastern direction from the northeastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. The surface rupture was created by the first and most powerful 7.8-magnitude earthquake that triggered at 4:17 am local time; the second surface rupture of 125 km long opened during the second 7.5-magnitude earthquake about nine hours later.

By comparing several optical satellite imagery before and after the earthquake, the horizontal displacements of the ground can be calculated using image correlation (also known as offset tracking) techniques. This data release contains co-seismic horizontal displacements obtained from the analysis of Copernicus Sentinel-2 satellite imagery at 10 m spatial resolution. The dataset has been created with the GDM-OPT-ETQ service (Provost & al., 2022[1]) of the ForM@Ter solid Earth data hub using the open source photogrammetry library MicMac (Rosu & al., 2015[2], Rupnik & al., 2018[3]). The massive processing was performed on the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP).

The dataset contains:

- 1) The 2-dimensional (2D) surface displacements for the East-West (EW) and North-South (N-S) components measured with the pair of Sentinel-2 images of January 25, 2023 and February 9, 2023 The displacement fields present numerous artefacts due to cloud and snow cover with a very low cover on the northern part of the region.
- 2) The 2-dimensional (2D) surface displacements for the East-West (EW) and North-South (NS) components measured with the pair of Sentinel-2 images of May 20, 2022 and May 5, 2023 (for tile 37SDC, Sentinel-2 images of May 17, 2022 and May 2, 2023 is processed). The pairs are chosen for its low cloud coverage.
- 3) The average of the two previous displacement fields. We recommend to use these displacement fields as they present the best coverage of the region with significantly reduced artefacts.
- 4) The derived displacement fields projected along and across the fault trace for the Mw7.8 and Mw7.6 fault traces.


The full resolution products are available at:

1) PAIR 1 DISPLACEMENT FIELDS (RAW)
- EW component of the displacement (raw, geotif file format)
- EW component of the displacement (full resolution, kml/kmz file format)
- NS component of the displacement (raw, geotif file format)
- NS component of the displacement (full resolution, kml/kmz file format)

2) PAIR 2 DISPLACEMENT FIELDS (RAW)
- EW component of the displacement (raw, geotif file format)
- EW component of the displacement (full resolution, kml/kmz file format)
- NS component of the displacement (raw, geotif file format)
- NS component of the displacement (full resolution, kml/kmz file format)

3) AVERAGE DISPLACEMENT FIELDS (OPTIMAL)
- EW component of the displacement (raw, geotif file format)
- EW component of the displacement (full resolution, kml/kmz file format)
- NS component of the displacement (raw, geotif file format)
- NS component of the displacement (full resolution, kml/kmz file format)

4) ALONG AND ACROSS FAULT DISPLACEMENT FIELDS
- EW component of the displacement (raw, geotif file format)
- EW component of the displacement (full resolution, kml/kmz file format)
- NS component of the displacement (raw, geotif file format)
- NS component of the displacement (full resolution, kml/kmz file format)

- EW component of the displacement (raw, geotif file format)
- EW component of the displacement (full resolution, kml/kmz file format)
- NS component of the displacement (raw, geotif file format)
- NS component of the displacement (full resolution, kml/kmz file format)

It has been created with the following pairs of Sentinel-2 images:
PAIR 1
S2A_MSIL1C_20230209T082111_N0509_R121_T36SYF_20230209T091429.SAFE
S2A_MSIL1C_20230209T082111_N0509_R121_T36SYG_20230209T091429.SAFE
S2A_MSIL1C_20230209T082111_N0509_R121_T37SBA_20230209T091429.SAFE
S2A_MSIL1C_20230209T082111_N0509_R121_T37SBB_20230209T091429.SAFE
S2A_MSIL1C_20230209T082111_N0509_R121_T37SBC_20230209T091429.SAFE
S2A_MSIL1C_20230209T082111_N0509_R121_T37SBV_20230209T091429.SAFE
S2A_MSIL1C_20230209T082111_N0509_R121_T37SCB_20230209T091429.SAFE
S2A_MSIL1C_20230209T082111_N0509_R121_T37SCC_20230209T091429.SAFE
S2A_MSIL1C_20230209T082111_N0509_R121_T37SDB_20230209T091429.SAFE
S2A_MSIL1C_20230209T082111_N0509_R121_T37SDC_20230209T091429.SAFE

S2B_MSIL1C_20230125T082129_N0509_R121_T36SYF_20230125T090640.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230125T082129_N0509_R121_T36SYG_20230125T090640.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230125T082129_N0509_R121_T37SBA_20230125T090640.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230125T082129_N0509_R121_T37SBB_20230125T090640.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230125T082129_N0509_R121_T37SBC_20230125T090640.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230125T082129_N0509_R121_T37SBV_20230125T090640.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230125T082129_N0509_R121_T37SCB_20230125T090640.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230125T082129_N0509_R121_T37SCC_20230125T090640.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230125T082129_N0509_R121_T37SDB_20230125T090640.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230125T082129_N0509_R121_T37SDC_20230125T090640.SAFE

PAIR 2
S2B_MSIL1C_20220520T081559_N0400_R121_T37SBC_20220520T091256.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20220520T081559_N0400_R121_T37SBA_20220520T091256.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20220520T081559_N0400_R121_T37SDC_20220520T091256.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20220520T081559_N0400_R121_T37SCC_20220520T091256.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20220520T081559_N0400_R121_T37SCB_20220520T091256.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20220520T081559_N0400_R121_T37SBB_20220520T091256.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20220530T081609_N0400_R121_T37SBC_20220530T091117.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20220520T081559_N0400_R121_T37SDB_20220520T091256.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20220517T080609_N0400_R078_T37SDC_20220517T105318.SAFE

S2B_MSIL1C_20230505T081609_N0509_R121_T37SBC_20230505T085532.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230505T081609_N0509_R121_T37SBA_20230505T085532.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230505T081609_N0509_R121_T37SDC_20230505T085532.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230505T081609_N0509_R121_T37SCC_20230505T085532.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230505T081609_N0509_R121_T37SCB_20230505T085532.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230505T081609_N0509_R121_T37SBB_20230505T085532.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230505T081609_N0509_R121_T37SBC_20230505T085532.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230505T081609_N0509_R121_T37SDB_20230505T085532.SAFE
S2B_MSIL1C_20230502T080609_N0509_R078_T37SDC_20230502T090413.SAFE

A correlation threshold of 0.8 (and 0.6 for tile 37SCC in pair 1) has been set to ensure a good reliability in the measure and remove spatial noise located in various areas, especially in the mountains. A correction was applied to count for the along-strip shift due to the push-broom acquisition mode of Sentinel-2 (Stumpf & al., 2018[4]). This allowed to correct most of the stripes except for one in the southern part of the area in the East of Antioche which remains visible in the North-South component and is not related to tectonic motion.

The products have been created with the support of CNES and ESA for the development, implementation and maintenance of the GDM-OPT-ETQ service.

License

The terrain motion products are under the open source license Creative Commons License - Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC-BY-NC 4.0) Creative Commons License - Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International .
The collection is disseminated using FAIR principles by the Data Terra Research Infrastructure (Solid Earth Data Hub - ForM@Ter) through the diffusion service EOST/A2S hosted at University of Strasbourg.

Access to products

The collection is disseminated using FAIR principles by the Data Terra Research Infrastructure (Solid Earth Data Hub - ForM@Ter) through the diffusion service EOST/A2S hosted at University of Strasbourg.

Further details

  1. Provost, F., Michéa, D., Malet, J.P., Boissier, E., Pointal, E., Stumpf, A., Pacini, F., Doin, M.P., Lacroix, P., Proy, C., Bally, P., (2022).Terrain deformation measurements from optical satellite imagery: The MPIC-OPT processing services for geohazards monitoring Remote Sensing of Environment, 274 10.1016/j.rse.2022.112949, HTML
  2. Rosu, E., Pierrot-Deseilligny, M., Delorme, A., Binet, R., Klinger, Y., (2015). Measurement of ground displacement from optical satellite image correlation using the free open-source software MicMac, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 100, 48-59 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.03.002, HTML
  3. Rupnik, E., Pierrot-Deseilligny, M., Delorme, A., (2018). 3D reconstruction from multi-view VHR-satellite images in MicMac, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 139, 201-211 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2018.03.016, HTML
  4. Stumpf, A., Michéa, D., Malet, J.P.,(2018). Improved Co-Registration of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 Imagery for Earth Surface Motion Measurements, Remote Sensing, 10(2),160 10.3390/rs10020160, HTML